Page 14 - Beaumont_Book_1
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POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE (PCKD)
           This is a genetic disorder characterised by the growth of numerous cysts within the kidney. These cysts
        are non-cancerous round sacs of water-like fluid. PCKD cysts can slowly replace much of the mass of the
        kidney, reducing kidney function and leading to kidney disease. People with PCKD may also have similar
        cysts in their liver, and there is also sometimes an association with a weakness of some of the blood
        vessels in the brain. PCKD is the most common inherited kidney disease, and children of parents with PCKD
        have a 50% chance of being affected by it. PCKD frequently causes kidney disease in patients in their
        50’s. PCKD is diagnosed by a ultrasound scan of the kidneys. Apart from control of blood pressure, there
        is no “cure” to stop the development of PCKD.





        VASCULAR DISEASES OF THE KIDNEY
        KIDNEY ARTERY STENOSIS This is a narrowing of
        the lining of the main artery (blood vessel) that
        supplies the kidneys. The resulting restriction of
        blood flow to the kidneys might lead to reduced
        kidney function and high blood pressure.
           This type of hypertension is known as
        renovascular hypertension and accounts for
        approximately 5% of patients with hypertension.
           Renovascular hyper-tension occurs when the
        artery to one of the kidneys is narrowed (unilateral
        stenosis). Kidney disease occurs when the arteries
        to both kidneys are narrowed (bilateral stenosis).
        The decreased blood flow to both kidneys
        increasingly impairs kidney function. This condition
        may be amenable to treatment with a balloon to
        open the blocked artery.


        OBSTRUCTIVE DISORDERS OF THE KIDNEY                   These factors cause recurrent episodes of kidney
           Obstructive Nephropathy – is a kidney disease      inflammation and scarring, and the kidneys may
        caused by a blockage to urine flow through the        shrink (atrophy). If the blockage is only for  a
        urinary tract. There are many things that can block   short time, the kidney can usually recover
        urine flow. Some of the more common causes            completely when the blockage is relieved. However,
        include:                                              if the blockage is there for a long time (for many
                                                              days or weeks), it can cause permanent kidney
         ● Kidney Stones                                      damage.
         ● Enlarged Prostate Gland or Prostate
            Cancer (males)                                    Pyelonephritis This is a bacterial infection of one
         ● Bladder Problems                                   or both kidneys. Chronic pyelonephritis is kidney
         ● Bladder Cancer                                     damage caused by recurrent or persistent kidney
                                                              infections. Chronic pyelonephritis is associated with
           Obstruction of the urinary tract results in        progressive scarring of the kidneys, which can lead
        increased back pressure on the kidneys and            to kidney disease. It occurs mainly in patients who
        increased frequency of urinary tract infections.      have malformations within the urinary tract.







        P.12 Kidney Disease — A Guide for Patients
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