Page 21 - Beaumont_Book_1
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Kidney Disease
                                                                          — A Guide for Patients

        This is a 'mid-stream' urine sample. Do not collect   to leak into the urine.
        the first or last part of the urine that you pass,       It may also indicate other problems such as
        which may contain bacteria or cells normally found    kidney stones. White blood cells, crystals, and
        on the skin. This is then sent to the laboratory to   bacteria can also be detected if there are bacteria
        be examined under a microscope, which can help to     or white blood cells and this may suggest urine
        diagnose some kidney diseases.                        infection. To confirm this, bacteria are allowed to
           Many things can be seen - like red blood cells this  grow on special plates overnight (culture). This
        can be a sign of kidney disease that damage the       allows the doctor to prescribe the most effective
        filtering units of the kidney, allowing blood cells   treatment for you.

            24 hour                                24 HOUR URINE COLLECTION
            urine                                  Kidney function is most precisely measured by calculating
            collection                             the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). This is a precise
                                                   estimate of the level of kidney function and can predict the
                                                   time when kidney replacement therapy is likely to be
                                                   needed. GFR can be determined by doing a 24 hour urine
                                                   collection and a blood test. You may be asked to complete
                                                   the urine collection, at home, or when admitted to hospital.
                                                      You will be given 1-2 large urine collection bottles and
                                                   asked to collect your urine over 24 hours. It is important to
                                                   discard the first urine sample of the day into the toilet and
                                                   then collect all urine for the next 24 hours into the bottle(s).
                                                   On the second day, the first sample of urine should be
                                                   collected. The collection is then complete. A blood test is
                                                   taken when the urine collection is completed. It is important
                                                   that the collection is properly carried out or the results will
                                                   be wrong.

        Urine protein testing is used to detect protein in the  protein in the  urine. This test may be ordered on a
        urine to help evaluate and monitor kidney function    random urine sample if a person shows evidence of
        and to detect and diagnose early kidney damage        significant and persistent protein in their
        and disease. A protein to creatinine ratio is a snap  urine or has known kidney damage that the
        shot of how much protein is present, in the urine,    doctor wishes to monitor. It is collected by either a
        at the time it is collected.                          24 hour urine collection or a midstream urine
           There are many different reasons why there is      sample.

                                                    BLOOD TESTS
            Blood tests are regularly carried out to measure how well your kidneys are working.
               The table on the next page outlines some of the blood tests that will be performed
            and what they mean.

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