Page 22 - Beaumont_Book_1
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BLOOD SAMPLE            NORMAL LEVELS          WHY IT IS BEING MEASURED

         Urea (Ur)                          2.5-8.5 mmol/L                A waste product produced in the liver and excreted
                                                                                                 by the kidneys. High values might mean the kidneys
                                                                                                 are not working as well as they should.

         Creatinine (Cr)                49-90umol/L                    A waste product produced largely from muscle
                                                                                                 breakdown. High levels, especially with high Urea
                                                                                                 levels, indicate problems with the kidneys.

         Sodium (Na)                    135-145mmol/L              The balance of salt and water in the body.


         Potassium (K+)              3.2-5.2mmol/L                 Important for proper functioning of nerves and
                                                                                                 muscles, particularly the heart. High and low levels
                                                                                                 require medical evaluation. Potassium comes from
                                                                                                 food, especially fruit, vegetables and nuts.


         Calcium (Ca)                     2.12-2.62mmol/L            Excreted by the kidney. Important for muscle
                                                                                                 contraction, cardiac function and blood clotting.


         Phosphate (P04)           0.7-1.5mmol/L                 Excreted by the kidneys. Necessary for strong
                                                                                                 bones, teeth, normal functioning of muscle and
                                                                                                 blood clotting.


         Albumin                            30-50g/L                          Protein in the blood made in the liver. Low levels
                                                                                                 may indicate that protein is leaking into the
                                                                                                 kidneys or if someone is malnourished.


         RISKS
         Cholesterol                      0.00-5.00mmol/L            Measures how much cholesterol and lipids are
                                                                                                 present in your blood.


         Triglyceride                     0.000-1.90mmol/L

         Urate                                 140-420umol/L


         Parathyroid                     15-65pglm                       Concerned with the regulation of extra-cellular
         Hormone                                                                     calcium levels.

         Iron Studies Ferritin     18-240nglml                    Main stored iron found in all tissues.


         Complete Blood              13.0-16.0gm/dl               Complete blood count is the red protein in blood. It
         Count (CBC)                                                                 carries oxygen around the body. One of the kidneys
                                                                                                 function is to produce erythropoietin (EPO), which
                                                                                                 stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood
                                                                                                 cells. When kidneys fail it may be necessary to give
                                                                                                 EPO in the form of an injection.


         White Cell Count            4-11 10^g/l                     White blood cells fight infection in the body.
         (WCC)                                                                            Raised/low levels may indicate infection.

         Hepatitis B+C                  Positive/Negative           Checks for the presence of hepatitis infection.




        P.20 Kidney Disease — A Guide for Patients
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