Page 40 - Beaumont_Book_1
P. 40

MRSA, VRE AND C.DIFFICLE
              People who have regular hospital admissions, such as kidney patients, are at increased
                                      risk of acquiring MRSA, VRE and C.Difficle.


        MRSA
                                                                 VRE
        What is MRSA?                                            What is VRE?
        MRSA is the shortened term used when referring
                                                                    VRE is the short-term used when referring to
        to  Meticillin  Resistant  Staphylococcus  Aureus.       Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci. Enterococci
        Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the name of the
                                                                 are bacteria found in the faeces of humans. Most
        bacteria. The sensitive strain is found in the nose and  of the time enterococci are part of the normal
        skin of 20-30% of healthy people. The resistant
                                                                 bacteria of the bowel and do not cause disease.
        strain (MRSA) means that it cannot be treated with       A strain of enterococci has developed resistance
        antibiotics normally used to treat the sensitive strain.
                                                                 to vancomycin, which is an antibiotic used to
                                                                 treat serious infections including MRSA
        Where is MRSA found?
                                                                 infections.
           MRSA is most often found in hospitals or  nursing
        homes where antibiotics are used frequently
                                                                 Where is VRE found?
        therefore encouraging the development of resistant          VRE is found in hospitals where patients are
        strains of bacteria.
                                                                 very unwell, such as intensive care, kidney and
                                                                 transplantation wards. Enterococci can survive
        How does a person acquire it?
                                                                 on surfaces, ledges and floors.
           MRSA is transferred from one person to another
        by human contact. The main method is on hands,
                                                                 How does a person acquire VRE?
        during patient care. Patients, who are carriers,            VRE may be transferred from one person to
        may pass it on to other patients if they are in
                                                                 another by direct contact, particularly from
        close contact.
                                                                 hands, during patient care.

        Does MRSA make a patient more ill?                       Does VRE make a person more ill?
           Some patients are colonised with MRSA and
                                                                    This varies from patient to patient. The
        others have infections caused by MRSA. A patient is      majority of patients are colonised, whilst some
        colonised with MRSA when he/she has no signs or
                                                                 are infected. Colonised means that the VRE is
        symptoms of infection. It does not alter their           not causing infection. The presence of VRE
        treatment and is not a reason to stay in hospital.
                                                                 colonisation does not alter their treatment and
           MRSA infection, like other infections, varies from    is not a reason to stay in hospital. VRE infections
        mild to severe and depends on other factors, such as
                                                                 can vary from mild to severe and depends on
        where the infection is, and the patient age and          factors such as the site of the infection and the
        underlying conditions. A person found to be
                                                                 patient’s overall condition.
        colonised or infected with MRSA will be nursed              Patients with VRE, in a wound or in a urine
        separately from other patients, in a single room
                                                                 specimen or those having diarrhoea, need to be
        (isolation), or in a room with others who also have      nursed in a single room (isolation) or nursed in a
        MRSA (co-horted).
                                                                 room with other patients with VRE
                                                                 (co-horted).
        What is the treatment for MRSA?
           A patient, colonised with MRSA, is treated with       What is the treatment for VRE?
        special washes and ointments.
                                                                    Infection, with VRE, is treated with antibiotics
           A patient, infected with MRSA, is treated with        usually given in a drip in a vein. Colonisation with
        antibiotics, in tablet or by a drip into a vein.
                                                                 VRE does not require any special treatment.



        P.38 Kidney Disease — A Guide for Patients
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