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TISSUE MATCHING



          Once blood group compatibility has been confirmed,
          the donor has to be tested for tissue compatibility.
          The tissue type of the donor and recipient will be
          determined in the transplant laboratory by way of a
          blood test. This process may take up to six weeks. In
          general, the better the match between the recipient
          and the donor the better the long-term success of
          kidney transplantation.
             You are tested for HLA antigens on up to 12
          different markers, which can have thousands of
          different combinations. A donor recipient pair that
          has matches on each of these 12 markers has a
          so-called ‘full house match’, sometimes called ‘zero
          mismatch’. Donor recipient matching is important
          because a better match often results in better            The long-term success of a kidney
          success of the transplant, and because poor             transplant can be excellent, even when
          matching can make kidney transplantation, the           the donor and recipient tissue-match is
          second or third time, a lot more difficult.             less than perfect.







                                               OTHER BLOOD TESTS



                Tests to check the donor for viruses are      ● They must be in excellent physical health.
                  completed quite early in the assessment     ● Their medical history needs to be relatively
                    process. A potential donor’s blood is        “clear” or uneventful.
                     examined for the presence of             ● They must be relatively free of pressure to
                     previous exposure to certain viruses,       donate as well as having a positive relationship
                     such as Hepatitis B & C, HIV and            with the potential recipient.
                    Cytomegalovirus (CMV).                    ● They must have some positive coping skills and
           With the exception of CMV, if these viruses are       supportive relationships.
        detected, transplantation cannot normally take        ● They must be relatively free of current emotional
        place due to the risk of disease transmission.           distress or disturbance.
        CMV can be transmitted during transplantation.        ● They must demonstrate a clear and realistic
        Recipients can be affected with flu-like symptoms        understanding of what is involved in living
                                                                 kidney donation.
        which can usually be controlled by modern anti-viral
                                                                 If tests show evidence of poor kidney function
        drugs.
                                                              or, if investigations show the possibility of the
           In summary, donors generally need to meet the
                                                              donor being medically unsuitable, the offer of a
        following standards;
                                                              donation may be declined. The team
        ● Donors need to be fit enough to undergo the
           operation.                                         recognises that this can be difficult news
        ● They need to be capable of living normally with     for those who are motivated to donate a
           just one kidney.                                   kidney to a loved one.




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