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        If you progress to a situation where you have CKD Stage 4-5 and/or have lost most of your kidney
        function (< 15%), you may experience symptoms that you have not had before.
           These can include increased fatigue, nausea, itching, swelling, lower back pain, problems
        passing urine and increased blood pressure.
           If your kidneys start to fail, you will be referred to a nephrologist (kidney specialist) to talk
        about the options going forward. These include dialysis and kidney transplantation.


                            BOOK 1                    BOOK 2                    BOOK 3
                         Petrina Donnelly, CNM   Prof. Peter J. Conlon, FRCPI  Helen Dunne, CNM
                          Helen Dunne, CNM
                                                                             Petrina Donnelly, CNM
                        Prof. Peter J. Conlon, FRCPI  Petrina Donnelly, CNM  Prof. Peter J. Conlon, FRCPI
                                                    Helen Dunne, CNM
                                                                              Ciara White, CNM
                                                                                                        BOOK 4
                     There are dedicated books on dialysis and transplantation, produced by the
           Irish Kidney Association and Beaumont Hospital. You can access the books at
                               or call 01-6205306 (Lo-Call: 1890-543639) for copies.


        The kidneys wash the blood and separate out waste products to be eliminated from the body.
        When the kidneys can no longer complete this necessary service, something else has to take
        its place – dialysis.

        HAEMODIALYSIS (filtering of blood via the blood stream)
        involves using a special machine – blood is drawn from your
        arm via a tube into the dialysis machine. The machine filters
        the waste out of your blood and then returns the blood back
        to your body.
           This process takes around four hours every time and most
        people need to attend a hospital or clinic at least three times
        a week. However, more recently you may be able to avail of
        home dialysis depending on your condition and willingness
        to choose a treatment you can manage yourself.

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