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GLOSSARY

         Glomerular Filtration       Common test for kidney function.
         Rate (GFR)

         Glomeruli                   Set of tiny blood vessels in the nephron of the kidney.

         Glomerulonephritis          Inflammation of the glomeruli.

         Haemoglobin                 Substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
         Hypertension                High blood pressure. Uncontrolled hypertension is one of the leading
                                     causes of kidney disease.

         Insulin                     Hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy.

         Kidney Transplant           Surgical procedure of placing a kidney from a donor to a recipient.

         Nephrologist                Consultant physician who specialises in kidney health.
         Nephron                     Small filtering unit in the kidney.

         Phosphate                   Mineral found in the blood and skeleton. People with kidney disease should
                                     be careful that their phosphate levels do not get too high.

         Polycystic Kidney           Genetic disease where there are multiple cysts in the kidneys.
         Disease                     Can be a cause of kidney deterioration or failure.

         Potassium                   Mineral that is normally present in the blood. Too much or too little can
                                     cause problems in the body and people with reduced kidney function should
                                     be careful not to eat too many foods that are high in potassium.
         Protein                     Found naturally in the body and also a class of food –
                                     found in meat, fish, eggs, vegetables etc.

         Reflux Nephropathy          Kidney condition caused by the backflow of urine from the bladder
                                     up the ureter into the kidney.

         Sodium                      Mineral in the body – most of the sodium we consume is salt. Too much salt
                                     in the diet can be harmful for people with reduced kidney function.

         Uraemia                     Build up of waste in the blood that can cause nausea, vomiting,
                                     tiredness and problems with concentration.
         Urea                        Waste product formed when protein is broken down in the body.

         Ureter                      Tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

         Vein                        Vessel that carries blood back to the heart.

         White Blood Cells           Cells that form part of the immune system.

                                                     REFERENCES
         National Kidney Foundation (online access 21 June 2013 http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease)
         Stack AG, Martin RD: Association of patient autonomy with increased transplantation and survival among new ESRD patients in the
         United States: The Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2. Am J Kidney Dis 45: 730-742, 2005.
         KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2013; 3:5.
         Schaeffner ES, Kurth T, Curhan GC, et al. Cholesterol and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men. J Am Soc Nephrol
         2003; 14:2084.
         Kshirsagar AV, Shoham DA, Bang H, et al. The effect of cholesterol reduction with cholestyramine on renal function. Am J Kidney Dis
         2005; 46:812.Muntner P, Coresh J, Smith JC, et al. Plasma lipids and risk of developing renal dysfunction: the atherosclerosis risk in
         communities study. Kidney Int 2000; 58:293.
         KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease, Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3:5.

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